The history of artificial intelligence is long and varied, with many different milestones along the way.
- Ada Lovelace wrote the first algorithm intended to be run by a machine.
- The world's first artificial intelligence was born. This early form of AI was known as a "mechanical Turk" and was able to perform simple tasks such as playing chess. While this AI was rudimentary by today's standards, it showed that machines could be taught to think and reason. Over the next two centuries, AI would evolve into the complex and powerful technology that we know today.
- In 1805, Pierre-Simon Laplace published his book A Philosophical Essay on Probabilities, in which he proposed the idea of a machine that could calculate the outcomes of any possible event.
- Charles Babbage designed a machine called the Analytical Engine, which could store and manipulate data, but was never completed.
- Gottfried Leibniz designed and implemented a algorithm that could calculate square roots, which is considered to be the first program.
- In the 1940s, artificial intelligence was still in its early stages of development. However, there were a few pioneers in the field who were working on various projects that would eventually lead to the creation of intelligent machines.
- Alan Turing, a British mathematician and logician, published a paper that would change the course of computer science. In this paper, Turing introduced the concept of the Turing machine- an imaginary device that could be used to model any computing process. This invention was so influential that it is now considered to be the foundation of modern computer science.
- John McCarthy coined the term “artificial intelligence” while at Dartmouth College. The intention was to create a summer research program where AI could be studied. McCarthy is considered the father of AI and his work has laid the foundation for many of the advances in the field.
- During the 1960s, artificial intelligence technology began to be used in commercial applications such as airline reservation systems and banking. The first AI program, called Logic Theorist, was created by Allen Newell and Herbert Simon at Carnegie Mellon University in 1956. In 1961, IBM released the first commercial computer, the IBM 704. This computer was equipped with an early form of artificial intelligence software that could solve mathematical problems.
- Marvin Minsky wrote “Perceptrons,” which is believed to be the first book on AI.
- AI technology was used in military applications. One such application was the development of a computer system that could predict the outcomes of military engagements. In addition, AI was used to create software that could automatically control military vehicles and aircraft.
- There were several important developments in the field that year. The first is the publication of "The Knowledge Level" by Robert Wilensky and Michael Naimark. This paper outlined a new way of thinking about artificial intelligence, which focused on creating agents that could learn and understand complex tasks. Another key development in 1980 was the creation of the first successful artificial intelligence program, called Mycin.